Wake up you Sleepy Headed Moors…The Gig is up!!!


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NT5ZAzVbFFM

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Moorish [ Mooris ] Dance – Really!!! You don’t know who the Moors are.

Really!!! You don’t know who the Moors are…

Check out the below take from Wikipedipa with reference to the Morris Dance.

You do know that Mooris is a derivative of Moor as well as Moray, Mora, Morisco, Morisques, Moreska, Maurice, Mourice, Maura, Mary, etc.

This article is specific to the dance however within it is history regarding the customs and culture of the Moors – check out the picture of the modern europeans trying to claim a history that is NOT theirs.

Also, it is interesting to note that is this article they say “Almost nothing is known about the folk dances of England prior to the mid-17th century.”

The reason you would not have any information on any dances of England is this is a modern word referencing the English who as defined in the Oxford Dictionary is a hybrid.

References to Mooris Dance


Morris dance

Morris dance is a form of English folk dance usually accompanied by music. It is based on rhythmic stepping and the execution of choreographed figures by a group of dancers, usually wearing bell pads on their shins. Implements such as sticks, swords and handkerchiefs may also be wielded by the dancers. In a small number of dances for one or two men, steps are performed near and across a pair of clay tobacco pipes laid one across the other on the floor.

The earliest known and surviving English written mention of Morris dance is dated to 1448, and records the payment of seven shillings to Morris dancers by the Goldsmiths’ Company in London.[1] Further mentions of morris dancing occur in the late 15th century, and there are also early records such as visiting bishops’ “Visitation Articles” mention sword dancing, guising and other dancing activities, as well as mumming plays. While the earliest records invariably mention “Morys” in a court setting, and a little later in the Lord Mayors’ Processions in London, it had adopted the nature of a folk dance performed in the parishes by the mid 17th century.

Outside of England, there are around 150 morris sides (or teams) in the United States. [2] British expatriates form a larger part of the morris tradition in Australia, Canada, New Zealand[3] and Hong Kong. There are isolated groups in other countries[4]

Name and origins

Further information: Moresca

A small statue of a “Moriskentänzer” made by Erasmus Grasser in 1480 for Old Townhall in Munich, one of a set of 16, of which only 10 remain. This dancer is clearly “moorish“, but all the other 9 surviving carvings have caucasian features. All wear bells on their legs.

The name is first recorded in the mid-15th century as Morisk dance, moreys daunce, morisse daunce, i.e. “Moorish dance”. The term entered English via Flemish mooriske danse Comparable terms in other languages are German Moriskentanz (also from the 15th century), French morisques, Croatian moreška, and moresco, moresca or morisca in Italy and Spain. The modern spelling Morris-dance first appears in the 17th century.[5]

It is unclear why the dance was so named, “unless in reference to fantastic dancing or costumes”, i.e. the deliberately “exotic” flavour of the performance.[6] The English dance thus apparently arose as part of a wider 15th-century European fashion for supposedly “Moorish” spectacle, which also left traces in Spanish and Italian folk dance. The means and chronology of the transmission of this fashion is now difficult to trace; the Great London Chronicle records “spangled Spanish dancers” performing an energetic dance before Henry VII at Christmas of 1494, but Heron’s accounts also mention “pleying of the mourice dance” four days earlier, and the attestation of the English term from the mid-15th century establishes that there was a “Moorish dance” performed in England decades prior to 1494.

It is suggested that the tradition of rural English dancers blackening their faces may be a reference to north African (or Moorish) pirates who settled in England.

History in Great Britain [ England ]

While the earliest (15th-century) references place the Morris dance in a courtly setting, it appears that the dance became part of performances for the lower classes by the later 16th century; in 1600, the Shakespearean actor William Kempe morris danced from London to Norwich, an event chronicled in his Nine Daies Wonder (1600).

Almost nothing is known about the folk dances of England prior to the mid-17th century. While it is possible to speculate on the transition of “morris dancing” from the courtly to a rural setting, it may have acquired elements of pre-Elizabethan (medieval) folk dance, such proposals will always be based on an argument from silence as there is no direct record of what such elements would have looked like. In the Elizabethan period, there was significant cultural contact between Italy and England, and it has been suggested that much of what is now considered traditional English folk dance, and especially English country dance, is descended from Italian dances imported in the 16th century.[12]

By the mid 17th century, the working peasantry took part in morris dances, especially at Whitsun.The Puritan government of Oliver Cromwell, however, suppressed Whitsun Ales and other such festivities. When the crown was restored by Charles II, the springtime festivals were restored. In particular, Whitsun Ales came to be celebrated on Whitsunday (Pentecost), as the date coincided with the birthday of Charles II.

Morris dancing continued in popularity until the industrial revolution and its accompanying social changes. Four teams claim a continuous lineage[clarification needed] of tradition within their village or town: Abingdon (their morris team was kept going by the Hemmings family), Bampton, Headington Quarry, and Chipping Campden. Other villages have revived their own traditions, and hundreds of other teams across the globe have adopted (and adapted) these traditions, or have created their own styles from the basic building blocks of morris stepping and figures.

Several English folklorists were responsible for recording and reviving the tradition in the early 20th century, often from a bare handful of surviving members of mid-19th-century village sides. Among these, the most notable are Cecil Sharp, Maud Karpeles, and Mary Neal.

Boxing Day 1899 is widely regarded as the starting point for the morris revival. Cecil Sharp was visiting at a friend’s house in Headington, near Oxford, when the Headington Quarry morris side arrived to perform. Sharp was intrigued by the music and collected several tunes from the side’s musician, William Kimber; not until about a decade later, however, did he begin collecting the dances, spurred and at first assisted by Mary Neal, a founder of the Espérance Club (a dressmaking co-operative and club for young working women in London), and Herbert MacIlwaine, musical director of the Espérance Club. Neal was looking for dances for her girls to perform, and so the first revival performance was by young women in London.

In the first few decades of the 20th century, several men’s sides were formed, and in 1934 the Morris Ring was founded by six revival sides. In the 1950s and especially the 1960s, there was an explosion of new dance teams, some of them women’s or mixed sides. At the time, there was often heated debate over the propriety and even legitimacy of women dancing the morris, even though there is evidence as far back as the 16th century that there were female morris dancers. There are now male, female and mixed sides to be found.

Partly because women’s and mixed sides are not eligible for full membership of the Morris Ring, two other national (and international) bodies were formed, the Morris Federation and Open Morris. All three bodies provide communication, advice, insurance, instructionals (teaching sessions) and social and dancing opportunities to their members. The three bodies co-operate on some issues, while maintaining their distinct identities.

Styles

Today, there are six predominant styles of morris dancing, and different dances or traditions within each style named after their region of origin.

  • Cotswold morris: dances from an area mostly in Gloucestershire and Oxfordshire; an established misnomer, since the Cotswolds overlap this region only partially. Normally danced with handkerchiefs or sticks to accompany the hand movements. Dances are usually for 6 or 8 dancers, but solo and duo dances (known as single or double jigs) also occur.
  • North West morris: more military in style and often processional, that developed out of the mills in the North-West of England in the 19th and early 20th centuries.
  • Border Morris from the English-Welsh border: a simpler, looser, more vigorous style, traditionally danced with blackened faces.
  • Longsword dancing from Yorkshire and south Durham, danced with long, rigid metal or wooden swords for, usually, 6 or 8 dancers.
  • Rapper from Northumberland and Co. Durham, danced with short flexible sprung steel swords, usually for 5 dancers.
  • Molly Dancing from Cambridgeshire. Traditionally danced on Plough Monday, they were Feast dances that were danced to collect money during harsh winters. One of the dancers would be dressed as a woman, hence the name. Joseph Needham identified two separate families of Molly dances, one from three villages in the Cambridge area and one from two in the Ely area.
  • Ploughstots (alternatively Vessel Cupping and Plew-ladding) from the East and North ridings of Yorkshire, also danced on Plough Monday. The dancers often held “flags”, used similarly to handkerchiefs in Cotswold and Border dances to emphasise hand movements, or rattling bones, rather than wearing bells but for the same purpose.
  • A similar Plough Monday tradition exists in the East Midlands; some of these dances involve swords, usually danced over in a similar manner to baccapipes jigs from Oxfordshire.

Cotswold

Lionel Bacon records Cotswold morris traditions from these villages: Abingdon, Adderbury, Ascot-under-Wychwood, Badby, Bampton, Bidford, Bledington, Brackley, Bucknell, Chipping Campden, Ducklington, Eynsham, Headington Quarry, Hinton-in-the-Hedges, Ilmington, Kirtlington, Leafield, Longborough, Oddington, Sherbourne, Stanton Harcourt, and Wheatley.

Bacon also lists the tradition from Lichfield, which is Cotswold-like despite that city’s distance from the Cotswold morris area; the authenticity of this tradition has been questioned. In 2006, a small number of dances from a previously unknown tradition was discovered by Barry Care of Moulton Morris Men (Ravensthorpe, Northants)—two of them danceable.

Other dances listed by Bacon include Border morris dances from Brimfield, Bromsberrow Heath, Evesham, Leominster, Much Wenlock, Pershore, Upton-upon-Severn, Upton Snodsbury, White Ladies Aston, and miscellaneous non-Cotswold, non-Border dances from Steeple Claydon and Winster. There are a number of traditions which have been collected since the mid-twentieth century, though few have been widely adopted. Examples are Broadwood, Duns Tew, and Ousington-under-Wash in the Cotswold style, and Upper and Lower Penn in the Border style. In fact, for many of the “collected” traditions in Bacon, only sketchy information is available about the way they were danced in the nineteenth century, and they have been reconstructed to a degree that makes them largely twentieth century inventions as well. Some traditions have been reconstructed in several strikingly disparate ways; an example would be Adderbury, danced very differently by the Adderbury Morris Men and the Adderbury Village Morris.

North West

The North West tradition is named after the North West region of England and has always featured mixed and female sides – at least as far back as the 18th century. There is a picture of Eccles Wakes (painted in the 1820s, judging by the style of dress of some of the participants and spectators) that shows both male and female dancers.

Historically, most sides danced in various styles of shoes or boots, although dancing in clogs was also very common. Modern revivalist sides have tended more towards the wearing of clogs. The dances were often associated with rushcarts at the local wakes or holidays. The dances themselves were often called ‘maze’ or ‘garland dances’ as they involved a very intricate set of movements in which the dancers wove in and out of each other. Some dances were performed with a wicker hoop (decorated with garlands of flowers) held above the dancer’s head. Some dancers were also associated with a tradition of mumming and hold a pace egging play in their area.

The Britannia Coco-nut Dancers, named after a mill not far from Bacup, are unique in the tradition, in that they used sawn bobbins to make a noise, and perform to the accompaniment of a brass ensemble. They are one of the few North West morris groups that still black up their faces. It is said that the dance found its way to the area through Cornishmen who migrated to work in the Rossendale quarries.

Towards the end of the 19th century, the Lancashire tradition was taken up by sides associated with mills and nonconformist chapels, usually composed of young girls. These lasted until the First World War, after which many mutated into “jazz dancers”. (A Bolton troupe can be seen in a pre-war documentary by Humphrey Jennings.) The dances have evolved stylistically and the dancers’ dress has changed to include pompoms and elements from other groups, such as cheerleaders and Irish dancers. However, they refer to themselves as “morris dancers”, wear bells, and are still mainly based in the Northwest of England. This type of morris has been around since the 1940s and is also referred to as Carnival or “fluffy morris” dancing. They take part in many different competitions during the year and end it with a “Championship” where one dance troupe is crowned the champions. This type of morris is also found in the north of Wales, where there are many different organizations with many different troupes. In 2008 NEMDCO (North of England Morris Dancing Carnival Organization) held a large competition at Blackpool in the Blackpool Tower Ballroom. The winner of this competition was Valencia, a troupe from Liverpool. During the folk revival in the 1960s, many of the old steps to dances such as “Stubbins Lane Garland” were often passed on by old people

Border

Main article: Border Morris

Morris dancers with black-painted faces, traditional along the border with Wales

Morris dancing with black painted faces in Monmouth, south Wales, as part of the Olympic torch relay, 2012

The term “Border Morris” was first used by E. C. Cawte in a 1963 article[20] on the morris dance traditions of Herefordshire, Shropshire, and Worcestershire – counties along the border with Wales. Characteristics of the tradition as practised in the 19th and early 20th centuries include black painted faces (in some areas); use of either a small strip of bells (in some areas) or no bells at all (in others); costume often consisting of ordinary clothes decorated with ribbons, strips of cloth, or pieces of coloured paper; or sometimes “fancy dress”; small numbers of dances in the team repertoire, often only one and rarely more than two; highly variable number of dancers in the set and configurations of the set (some sides had different versions of a dance for different numbers of dancers); and an emphasis on stick dances almost to the exclusion of hankie dances.

Sword dancing

Plough Monday dance by the Royal Liberty Morris

Usually regarded as a type of morris, although many of the performers themselves consider it as a traditional dance form in its own right, is the sword dance tradition, which includes both rapper sword and longsword traditions. In both styles the “swords” are not actual swords, but implements specifically made for the dance. The dancers are usually linked one to another via the swords, with one end of each held by one dancer and the other end by another. Rapper sides consist of five dancers, who are permanently linked-up during the dance. The rapper sword is a very flexible strip of spring-steel with a wooden handle at each end. The longsword is about 2’6″ (0.8 metres) long, with a wooden handle at one end, a blunt tip, and no edge. Sometimes ribbons are threaded through a hole in the tip oif the sword, and the dancers grab on to them during the course of the dance. Longsword sides consist usually of five to eight dancers. In both rapper and longsword there is often a supernumerary “character”, who dances around, outside, and inside the set.

Mumming

The English mummers play occasionally involves morris or sword dances either incorporated as part of the play or performed at the same event. Mummers plays are often performed in the streets near Christmas to celebrate the New Year and the coming springtime. In these plays are central themes of death and rebirth.

Other traditions

Other forms include Molly dance from Cambridgeshire. Molly dance, which is associated with Plough Monday, is a parodic form danced in work boots and with at least one Molly man dressed as a woman. The largest Molly Dance event is the Whittlesea Straw Bear Festival, established in 1980, held at Whittlesey in Cambridgeshire in January.

There is also hoodening which comes from East Kent, and the Abbots Bromley Horn Dance.

Another expression of the morris tradition is Vessel Cupping. This was practised in the East Riding of Yorkshire until the 1920s. It was a form danced by itinerant ploughboys in sets of three or four, about the time of Candlemas.

Additionally, there is a specifically Welsh version of this terpsichorean art that is distinct from the Borders Morris style. This style is called Nantgarw tradition after a small village in the Taff Valley. One Nantgarw dance, Y Caseg Eira, is derived directly from notes made on traditional Welsh dances from the 1890s. These notes were made by Dr. Ceinwen Thomas in the 1950s from the childhood recollections of her mother, Catherine Margretta Thomas. Others are more modern inventions made in the style of older dances. Dances in the Nantgarw style include; Caseg Eira (The Snow Mare), Hela’r Sgwarnog (Hunting The Hare) and Ty Coch Caerdydd (The Red House of Cardiff).

Music

Music was traditionally provided by either a pipe and tabor or a fiddle. These are still used today, but the most common instrument is the melodeon. Accordions and concertinas are also common, and other instruments are sometimes used. Often drums are employed.

Cotswold and sword dancers are most often accompanied by a single player, but Northwest and Border sides often have a band, usually including a drum.

For Cotswold and (to a degree) Border dances, the tunes are traditional and specific: the name of the dance is often actually the name of the tune, and dances of the same name from different traditions will have slightly different tunes. For Northwest and sword dancing there is less often a specific tune for a dance: the players may use several tunes, and will often change tunes during a dance.

For dances which have set tunes, there is often a short song set to the tune. This is sung by the musician(s) or by the whole side as an introduction to the tune before the dance. The songs are usually rural in focus (i.e. related to agricultural practices or village life) and often bawdy or vulgar. Songs for some dances vary from side to side, and some sides omit songs altogether.

Several notable albums have been released, in particular the Morris On series, which consists of Morris On, Son of Morris On, Grandson of Morris On, Great Grandson of Morris On, Morris On the Road, and Mother of all Morris.

Terminology

Like many activities, morris dancing has a range of words and phrases that it uses in special ways.

Many participants will refer to the world of morris dancing as a whole as the morris.

A morris troupe is usually referred to as a side or a team. The two terms are interchangeable. Despite the terminology, morris dancing is hardly ever competitive.

A set (which can also be referred to as a side) is a number of dancers in a particular arrangement for a dance. Most Cotswold morris dances are danced in a rectangular set of six dancers, and most Northwest dances in a rectangular set of eight; but there are many exceptions.

A jig is a dance performed by one (or sometimes two) dancers, rather than by a set. Its music does not usually have the rhythm implied by the word jig in other contexts.

The titles of officers will vary from side to side, but most sides have at least the following:

  • The role of the squire varies. In some sides the squire is the leader, who will speak for the side in public, usually lead or call the dances, and often decide the programme for a performance. In other sides the squire is more of an administrator, with the foreman taking the lead, and the dances called by any experienced dancer.
  • The foreman teaches and trains the dancers, and is responsible for the style and standard of the side’s dancing. The foreman is often “active” with the “passive” dancers.
  • The bagman is traditionally the keeper of the bag—that is to say, the side’s funds and equipment. In some sides today the bagman acts as secretary (particularly bookings secretary) and there is often a separate treasurer.
  • On some sides a ragman manages and co-ordinates the team’s kit or costume. This may include making bell-pads, ribbon bads, sashes and other accoutrements.

Many sides have one or more fools. A fool will usually be extravagantly dressed, and communicate directly with the audience in speech or mime. The fool will often dance around and even through a dance without appearing really to be a part of it, but it takes a talented dancer to pull off such fooling while actually adding to and not distracting from the main dance set.

Pete the Royal Liberty Morris fool

Many sides also have a beast: a dancer in a costume made to look like a real or mythical animal. Beasts mainly interact with the audience, particularly children. In some groups this dancer is called the hobby.

A tradition in Cotswold morris is a collection of dances that come from a particular area, and have something in common: usually the steps, arm movements, and dance figures. Many newer traditions are invented by revival teams.

Most Cotswold dances alternate common figures (or just figures) with a distinctive figure (or chorus). The common figures are common to all (or some) dances in the tradition; the distinctive figure distinguishes that dance from others in the same tradition. Sometimes (particularly in corner dances) the choruses are not identical, but have their own sequence specific to the tradition. Nevertheless, something about the way the chorus is danced will distinguish that dance from others. Several traditions will often have essentially the same dance, where the name, tune, and distinctive figure are the same or similar, but each tradition employs its common figures and style.

In England, an ale is a private party where a number of morris sides get together and perform dances for their own enjoyment rather than for an audience. Food is usually supplied, and sometimes this is a formal meal known as a feast or ale-feast. Occasionally an evening ale will be combined with a day or weekend of dance, where all the invited sides will tour the area and perform in public. In North America the term is widely used to describe a full weekend of dancing involving public performances and sometimes workshops. In the sixteenth to nineteenth centuries, the term “ale” referred to a church- or village-sponsored event where ale or beer was sold to raise funds. Morris dancers were often employed at such events.

Modern dance

The “soul” of morris dancing exists within many individual groups, which are for the most part constituted as autonomous clubs or sides, each with its own constitution and procedures. Sides do not exist in isolation, and generally co-exist in a spirit of good-will and meet regularly, not just at large Folk Festivals or meetings organised by the three national umbrella organisations (Ring, Federation and Open), but also at annual Feasts or Ales that many sides organise. Apart from copious amounts of drinking and eating, these events (which can run over a whole weekend) are an opportunity for large numbers of morris dancers and musicians from across the country to come together in massed ensembles, performing throughout the area covered by the host side.

In theory, sides may acknowledge geographic rights of others, although, except in very unusual cases, there is actually nothing to stop one side performing in the heartland of another. In the past this may have rarely been done without permission and agreement, but in modern practice such courtesies are mainly taken for granted. In most cases, sides partner each other via a system of mutual invitations at Morris Dancing venues.

Morris dancing is now an art and recreation enjoyed by men and women across the world. In England, there are many Mixed Morris sides that enable people to dance and have roles irrespective of gender.

Evolution

The continuance of the morris is as much in the hands of independent groups of enthusiasts as it is in the nationwide groupings such as The Morris Ring or The Morris Federation. So while for some sides there is a feeling that the music and dance recorded in the 19th century should be maintained, there are others who freely reinterpret the music and dance to suit their abilities and including modern influences. In 2008 a front page article in the Independent Magazine noted the rising influence of neopaganism within the modern morris tradition. The article featured the views of Neopagan sides Wolf’s Head and Vixen Morris and Hunter’s Moon Morris and contrasted them with those of the more traditional Long Man Morris Men.

Conversely, the Telegraph carried a report on 5 January 2009, predicting the demise of morris dancing within 20 years, due to the lack of young people willing to take part. This widespread story originated from a senior member of the more traditionally-minded Morris Ring, and may only reflect the situation in relation to member groups of that one organization.

The success of Terry Pratchett‘s Discworld novels has seen the entirely invented Dark Morris tradition being brought to life in some form by genuine morris sides such as the Witchmen Morris and Jack Frost Morris.

The advent of the Internet in the 1990s has also given Morris sides a new platform upon which to perform. Many Morris sides now have entertaining websites which seek to reflect the public persona of the individual sides as much as record their exploits and list forthcoming performances.

There are also a multitude of thriving Morris related blogs, forums and individual sides are to be found maintaining an interactive presence on major social networking sites.

Kit and clothing

There is great variety shown in how morris sides dress, from the predominantly white clothing of Cotswold sides to the tattered jackets worn by Border teams. Some common items of clothing are: bellpads; baldrics; rosettes; waistcoats; tatter-coats; knee-length breeches; wooden clogs; straw hats, top hats, or bowlers; neckerchiefs; armbands.

Namesakes

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This is my commentary on the CNN FERGUSON corporation

This is my commentary on the below – my comments are in red.

Are you participating in Monday’s walkout

(CNN) — It’s been one week since the streets of Ferguson boiled over after protesters learned the officer who shot teenager Michael Brown won’t face criminal charges.

As a fact of law the police is NOT an officer – officers are elected officials not hired corporate security for municipal corporations.

It is NOT the duty of the police to protect you.

Their job is to protect THE CORPORATION and arrest code breakers. (SAPP vs. Tallahassee, 348 So. 2nd. 363, Reiff vs. City of Phila. 477 F. 1262, Lynch vs. NC Dept. of Justice 376 S.E. 2nd. 247)

Since then, much has changed. And much hasn’t.

Here’s what to know to get up to speed on the Ferguson fallout:

Mayor: Wilson won’t receive severance

He may not receive “severance” however what usually happens with people like this is they are hired by another area of the corporation for example as some sort of liaison connected with, are you ready for this? The school.

THE PROTESTS

Why the internet loves this photo – Check out the hand shake.

Calls for a walkout:

The looting and arson that marred last week’s protests are over. But the demonstrations continue in Missouri and across the country.

Activists are calling for students to walk out of school and employees to walk off the job nationwide at 1 p.m. ET Monday to protest police violence.

And over the Thanksgiving weekend, Ferguson-area organizers called for a Black Friday shopping boycott, forcing the St. Louis Galleria Mall to shut down temporarily on the busiest shopping day of the year.

This is the power of the Masses – did you know that your purchases is what keeps these modern Europeans financed?

If back when they had the boycott they had realized this type of purchasing power, which they were on the brink of realizing which is why they had to send in martin luther king to end the boycott because they realized just how much finance they lost in that year, things would have changed a long time ago and we would have realized our power!!!

St. Louis officials urged Galleria retailers to close security gates after several hundred protesters entered the mall and disrupted shopping. This was not a disruption of shopping it was impeding the yearly revenue generating. What were they saying? We don’t care that a life was taken, we are only interested in financial gain – on your land since we are the only aliens here.

Protesters chanted “Hands up, don’t shop,” while others lay on the floor in a “die-in.”

If supporters did shop, they were told to take their money to black-owned businesses, some of which were listed on social media. Brown, the teenager, was black; Officer Darren Wilson, who shot him, is white.

The redirecting of finance into the Asiatic community is what distressed the modern European aliens – its only about finance for them.

THE OFFICER

Wilson resigns:

He’s been in hiding for most of the 3 1/2 months since the shooting. And now Darren Wilson is no longer a Ferguson police officer. This corporate security for FERGUSON corporation was never an officer, officers are elected officials not hired mercenaries.

“I have been told that my continued employment may put the residents and police officers of the City of Ferguson at risk, which is a circumstance that I cannot allow,” Wilson, 28, wrote in his resignation letter.

Continued employment is an indication of being hired not elected as an officer would have been – “put the residents and police employees of FERGUSON corporation at risk” – this lets you know they are only concerned with the employees and corporation personnel of the FERGUSON corporation and that is their community. So when you see their cruiser passing by and it says serving the community since 1894 in the case of the FERGUSON corporation incorporation date, they are only referring to the FERGUSON corporate community, their personnel, employees, executive officers, et al from ONLY a corporate perspective – don’t get tricked into thinking they include the aboriginal indigenous people. If that was the case their prisons would not be filled with the aboriginal indigenous people of the land who are forced/compelled to finance their operation with no benefit and of course lets not forget the many aboriginal indigenous people, like Michael Brown, who are murdered on a daily basis while at the same time forced/compelled to finance the very operation that murdered him and many others.

According to law this operation is called Racketeering – it is when no product or service is provided yet income is received. That’s also Tax evasion!!!

Photos: Ferguson protests across U.S.

“For obvious reasons, I wanted to wait until the grand jury made their decision before I officially made my decision to resign. It was my hope to continue in police work, but the safety of other police officers and the community are of paramount importance to me. It is my hope that my resignation will allow the community to heal.”

Once again the community he is referring to is his police buddies, the other mercenaries – guns for hire.

Ferguson Mayor James Knowles said there will be no severance pay for Wilson’s resignation.

It’s not clear what’s next for Wilson, whose lawyer said has been receiving death threats.

Wow, they received only a threat. Michael Brown did not get that privilege. He was gunned down in the street with hands raised and no weapons of destruction – not the case for Daren Wilson, he had plenty of weapons of destruction and he had no problem using it on the aboriginal indigenous people misclassified as negro, colored, black, African American.

Michael Brown is an American, aboriginal indigenous lineal descendent.

Daren Wilson is a foreign modern European alien whose family came through Ellis Island and/or over on the Mayflower – clearly NOT one of the Native Americans found here!!!

THE POLITICS

 Nationwide conversations:

‘Racism without racists’?

Did media make Ferguson riots worse? The media attempted to make the riots near FERGUSON corporation appear to be the aboriginal indigenous people of the land out of control. What the world saw is foreigners murdering and killing the aboriginal indigenous people of the land in the streets with NO consequences and making jokes about it alleging that no wrong was done when the video footage of the murder of a young man contradicts the unintelligent media displays.

Come on media People do you really think the whole world is stupid?

The good & the bad of Ferguson coverage

President Barack Obama will hold a series of meetings Monday stemming from the Ferguson unrest.

First, Obama will meet with his Cabinet to discuss results from a review he ordered in August looking into federal funding to local and state law enforcement agencies.

Then he will speak with young civil rights leaders in the Oval Office. Finally, he will meet with elected officials, community and faith leaders as well as law enforcement officials to discuss how communities and law enforcement can work together to build trust.

Meanwhile, Attorney General Eric Holder will launch a series of nationwide conversations following the upheaval from Ferguson. On Monday evening, he will meet with law enforcement officers, local officials and other community leaders at Ebenezer Baptist Church in Atlanta.

Details of Holder’s next stops have not been released.

Holder has opened two civil rights investigations in Missouri — one into whether Wilson violated Brown’s civil rights, the other into the police department’s overall track record with minorities.

THE CITY

New initiatives:

Ferguson’s mayor outlined new initiatives in an attempt to forge a better relationship

between the city’s police department and the community.

Again what community is the CEO of the FERGUSON corporation talking about? That community does not include the aboriginal indigenous people – FERGUSON corporation is just another corporation unlawfully extorting finance from the aboriginal indigenous people for income gain – there is absolutely no benefit to the aboriginal indigenous people from a municipal corporation – did you know municipal means Roman jurisdiction – this is not Rome!!! No Jurisdiction!!!

Knowles announced a new civilian review board to provide input on police efforts as well as a scholarship program to try to recruit more African-American officers.

Wait a new civilian review board to provide input on police efforts – so they are going to monitor themselves and report to themselves.

People are you getting this – they really think the people are dumb!!! Maybe they think this because they are the ones in control of the alleged education system and they make sure the people never learn that FERGUSON is simply just another corporation posing as government with no Constitutional sanction to exist or have any jurisdiction.

Did they teach you that in school? Guess who does know this? Your alleged “black” leaders who sold you out – your Al Sharptons and Jessie Jacksons – they know.

Even though the majority of Ferguson is black, only about four of the 50-some officers on Ferguson’s police force is black.

Denationalization at work – the majority of FERGUSON, which is a corporation mind you is BLACK – did you know black means dead in the eyes of the law, no link to the inheritance of this land. The true “BLACK” people would be the foreign modern European alien since this is not their land they can have no descent line here but if you chose to identify yourself as “black” you melinated people are abandoning your birthright – your Estate – did you know that State is a derivative of Estate?

THE RIPPLES

Silent message:

Several St. Louis Rams players sent a silent but strong message before they took the field Sunday against the Oakland Raiders.

The players raised their palms in the air, repeating the “hands up, don’t shoot” gesture that protesters in Ferguson have been using for months.

But the move infuriated the St. Louis Police Officers Association, which issued a statement saying it was “profoundly disappointed” with the group of Rams “who chose to ignore the mountains of evidence released from the St. Louis County Grand Jury this week.”

The support of the obvious genocide infuriated gang “ST. LOUIS POLICE OFFICERS ASSOCIATION” and lefts talk about the alleged mountain of evidence – did said evidence show the young man holding up his hands with NO weapons? Did it show that the young man was brutally shot down in the street by a foreign European alien that has no ties to this land?

What possible evidence could anyone have that would justify murdering a young man of Asiatic descent in the street with no weapons?

Really, they think the People are stupid!!!

“The gesture has become synonymous with assertions that Michael Brown was innocent of any wrongdoing and attempting to surrender peacefully when Wilson, according to some now-discredited witnesses, gunned him down in cold blood,” the police association wrote.

The gang is now writing commentaries – what gang you ask? “ST. LOUIS POLICE OFFICERS ASSOCIATION”

THE BRIGHT SPOT

 A touching sight:

After all the images of screaming, burning and anguish over the past week, one poignant image has been shared more than 150,000 times: a picture of a young black boy and a white police officer hugging.

The photo, taken in Portland, Oregon, came after 12-year-old Devonte Hart was holding a sign offering “Free Hugs” at a protest against a grand jury’s decision not to indict Wilson. The boy had tears streaming down his face.

Portland police Sgt. Bret Barnum said he approached Devonte “not as a police officer, but just a human being” when he saw him crying. Devonte seemed hesitant to talk at first, but Barnum said he broke the ice by talking about life, travel and summer vacations before asking for a hug.

“The situation itself is something police officers do every day when they go out on the street and make citizen contacts,” Barnum told CNN.

This is such bull, I have never witnessed any police – mercenary engaging anyone of melinated Asiatic descent in anything other than outright cruel inhuman behavior as demonstrated in the millions of youtube testimonies and personal eye witness.

This is an attempt to show the police mercenary gang as anything other than what they are. Trained murderers, thieves, liars and NOT to be trusted as their only function is to protect the corporation NOT the people as is affirmed in the beginning of this commentary – It is NOT the duty of the police to protect you.

Their job is to protect THE CORPORATION and arrest code breakers. (SAPP vs. Tallahassee, 348 So. 2nd. 363, Reiff vs. City of Phila. 477 F. 1262, Lynch vs. NC Dept. of Justice 376 S.E. 2nd. 247)

The Oregonian newspaper was the first media outlet to publish the photo by 20-year-old freelance photographer Johnny Nguyen.

Nguyen told CNN he attended the rally just to take pictures for himself. Then he saw the exchange between the officer and the boy.

“I thought, what a great scene,” Nguyen said. “A powerful scene. A scene with a message that needed to be communicated. A scene of coming together.”

Don’t let this fool you people, you are not stupid. Check out the case law above. The police is there to protect the corporation NOT the people – that’s it period!!!

This is an attempt to lie to the people and the world by alleging to show a modern European alien engaging a Native American young boy who is currently being groomed to be a revenue generator for the very police – mercenary who is alleging to have a touching moment.

Really, they think the people are stupid!!!

http://www.cnn.com/2014/12/01/us/ferguson-up-to-speed/index.html

Below is the Commentary with pictures.

This is my commentary on the CNN FERGUSON corporation v3

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Scam of the Dollar, Money, Cash – Wake up People!!!

If the Federal Reserve Note erroneously called [Money or Cash] is worthless pieces of paper per the Federal Reserve Bank publication “Modern Money Mechanics” why are Moors fighting each other for it? Did not Prophet Noble Drew Ali say “there will come a day when you will see a twenty note [dollar] bill on the floor and you will step over it”? Wake up you sleepy headed Moors, the ball is in your court – Home Rule Advantage!!!

Federal Reserve Scam.pdf

 

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People, All People…WAKE UP!!! Your Constitutionally Secured unalienable Rights are being LIENED!!!

Now the employees/corporate security guards/European males with guns of NEW YORK CITY corporation are in a slick way trying to justify their actions and move the People away from the true issue at hand…Be clear they DO NOT HAVE THE RIGHT, AUTHORITY, OR JURISDICTION to interfere with the People.

NEW YORK CITY is a corporation!!! Even is you google and find their 2004 charter it says they are a corporation doing business under the name of NEW YORK CITY.

So tell me, how does a corporation get the right to injure the people and then talk about they were well within their rights? And did so because their corporate policy, which is private and has nothing to do with the people and is treason and fraud. This corporate policy states they can arrest, make assumptions of the people free right to travel, resisting [arrest] assault of a complete stranger, alleged criminal trespass, etc.

Remember all authority MUST be delegated!!!

Now since government is created for the People, by the People, it is the People who must delegate. Not even an alleged representative can delegate and if they do the People have a right to alter any thing they are NOT in agreement with!!!

All powers are delegated from the People to the public servants.

So where in the American Constitution 1791 does it authorize any power to be delegated to a corporation who then set up alleged courts without any delegation of authority pursuant to Article III of the American Constitution 1791 that literally rape the People? Where is that in the American Constitution 1791? In other words pursuant to  the 9th Bill of Rights, if it is not enumerated in the American Constitution 1791 then it is reserved to the People!!!

New York state republic, which is guaranteed pursuant to Article 4, Section 4 of the American Constitution 1791, a republican form of government, is “bound” and “obligated” to protect the People!!! Their silence when the People are injured/murdered and their liberties are grossly violated is Treason and implies they are receiving bribes to remain silent in the face of the Publicized assault on the People.

Why are those public servants, who take an Oath to the American Constitution 1791 to protect the People, silent?

Why is the United Nations, who “Mission Statement” professes to be about promoting peace around the world, silent when the last thing that is going on is peace?

Why does the International Police, INTERPOL, remain silent when it is publicized that the Corporate security [Police] of these Corporations doing business as the COUNTY, CITY, TOWN, TOWNSHIP, BOROUGHS, are literally murdering the People, kidnapping them and placing them in prison, which are private contractors, for profit?

Why is everyone silent!!!

But most important, why are the People silent?

Don’t you see that the Mayor of all these COUNTY/CITY/TOWN/TOWNSHIP/BOROUGHS are nothing more than CEO’s? And your voting for corporate executives?

In the corporate world only the Board of Directors can vote in executive officers. Are you on the Board of Directors for the NEW YORK CITY corporation?

If so when was the last time you received a dividend payment? That is what members of the Board of Directors would receive however instead the People are extorted/robbed of any and all finance.

Remember when the gangs that were called organized crime syndicates received finance/income and they do not provide a product or service that was called “Racketeering”!!!

Take a look at not just NEW YORK CITY corporation but all the COUNTY/CITY/TOWN/TOWNSHIP/BOROUGH corporations. You are witnessing, live in the flesh an organized crime syndicate extorting finance from the people under the guise of “government”, a violation of Title 18 section 912.

They send an extortion demand to the people and they say this is your taxes, you must pay, protection payment. They say you must turn your property over to use, however police call it a motor vehicle, however the Supreme Court identifies your car, as household goods, and if you don’t go through their private process that they call the motor vehicle registration and license process, a lien on your right to travel. We will steal your stuff, kidnap you and throw you in prison and receive income because we will submit fraudulent bonds, beginning with a bail bondsman, with an expected performance that they do not unveil to you so that you can violate the alleged agreement and they can revoke the bond. Know this, any and all agreements entered into under threat, duress, and coercion are void ab initio, from its beginning.

By the way did you know that the People can never be bonded? They are NOT the public servants, they do not have an Oath to be bonded against.

The “bond” is a racket!!! They will prepare a performance bond, but they will not disclose it to you, of course this is done fraudulently by the corporations, so your creating a fraudulent contract with a corporation to do something that you do not know you are suppose to do. So when you are not privy to what you are suppose to do, naturally you are being set up to fail hence the revoking of the “bond”. Just so you know, it was all fraudulently done to begin with. And who is the person who authorized the bond? The Magistrate who pursuant to the Supreme Court has NO judicial powers, well they are not even sanctioned to be a court – so naturally that is why they have no judicial powers.

Why do they revoke the fraudulent bond? Because it is more profitable for them to broker the bond, receive income, force you against your will to work and receive income, cut off all form of communication once they kidnap you and then force you to use other colluding corporations whereby your family must first pay enormous sums of income before you can even talk and that conversation is recorded which is a violation of the People right to privacy, a violation of due process of law, a complete war against the People of the land.

Did you know that pursuant to Article I of the American Constitution 1791 only the United States Congress can write laws?

Did you know that the State/Comonwealth are not writing laws? It is the General Assembly that is writing laws. Do you know who the General Assembly is?

General Assemblies were set up around the fifteen to sixteen hundreds by Great Britain, The Dutch Republic, The Sweden Republic, and Denmark to name a few. Their purpose was to write laws relative to the commerce [product] they were permitted by treaty agreement to engage in here on this Continent. They were originally called General Corte, the name was changed to General Court, that then changed to General Assembly. There you have it. The alleged law that are today fraudulently and violently being forced on the people are foreign policies for companies today incorporated as corporations. That is a violation of the American Constitution which “bounds” the public servant to protect the People against foreign and domestic invasion. Yet is seems everyone is profiting off of the blood of the People, that’s Human Trafficking/Genocide.

With all this those public servants who took an Oath to the American Constitution 1791 remain silent? That sounds like someone is taking a bribe to remain silent!!!  This war against the People of this land are publicize on the television, they publish it in their alleged newspapers, and also on the internet. They even make video and audio recording of their many acts of genocide and the public servants who took an oath to the American Constitution 1791, who receive income from the People they allege to represent are silent!!!

Someone is taking a bribe to remain silent!!!

http://news.msn.com/crime-justice/nyc-police-investigate-another-apparent-chokehold

 

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Breaking News of one our family members that were brutally murdered!!! Stand!!!

Below is a very disturbing video clip of an innocent young man who was murdered by the corporate security of NEW YORK CITY Corporation.

Everyone needs to write a cause of action regarding this.

This is stalking, profiling, murder, etc.

Looks like a dozen employees of the NEW YORK CITY corporation allege that this man was resisting arrest…Is this what is called resisting arrest these days? And unfortunately most people do not know that the People have a right to resist arrest especially if it is unwarranted and in violation of the American Constitution 1791.

Know this, the police are not Constitutionally Sanctioned, they are not officers, officers are elected. Police are hired by the Mayor who in truth is the CEO of NEW YORK CITY corporation!!!

This is murder…Everyone must document and writ a cause of action. Do not let this young brothers take a big hit for the family for nothing!!! Do not let his death be in vain…Everyone writ a cause of action, download this, send it everywhere. If you didn’t know what genocide is, if you didn’t know what stalking is, if you didn’t know what murder is…Watch this video and you will know.

And Family – stop calling these mercenaries!!! This is how they keep their jobs to continue killing our family. Police are not here to protect the People, they are here to protect the corporation and their interest.

It is NOT the duty of the police to protect you. Their job is to protect THE CORPORATION and arrest code breakers. (SAPP vs. Tallahassee, 348 So. 2nd. 363, Reiff vs. City of Phila. 477 F. 1262, Lynch vs. NC Dept. of Justice 376 S.E. 2nd. 247)

They allege that he was resisting arrest, well he has a Constitutionally Secured right to resist!!! Especially from a pack of wild wolfs that jumped on this brother and murdered him.

” Supreme Court has held that the officer has no right (to arrest a Citizen) unless certain procedures (constitutional protections) are adhered to…Where the officer is killed in the course of the disorder which naturally accompanies an attempted arrest that is resisted, the law looks with very different eyes upon the transaction, when the officer had the right to make the arrest, from what it does if the officer had no right. What may be murder in the first case might be nothing more than manslaughter in the other, or the facts might show that no offense had been committed.”  John Bad Elk v. U.S., 177 U.S. 529.

John Bad Elk v. U.S., 177 U.S. 529.

“Common as the event may be, it is a serious thing to arrest a citizen, and it is a more serious thing to search his person; and he who accomplishes it, must do so in conformity to the law of the land. There are two reasons for this; one to avoid bloodshed, and the other to preserve the liberty of the citizen. Obedience to the law is the bond of society, and the officers set to enforce the law are not exempt from its mandates.”) see also: Allen v. State, 197 N.W. 808, 810-11 (Wis 1924)

“An illegal arrest is an assault & battery. The person so attempted to be restrained of his liberty has the same right to use force in defending himself as he would in repelling any other assault & battery.”  State v. Robinson, 145 ME. 77, 72 ATL. 260.

Runyan v. State, 57 Ind. 80;

“When a person, being without fault, is in a place where he has a right to be, is violently assaulted, he may, without retreating, repel by force, and, if in the reasonable exercise of his right of self defense, his assailant is killed, he is justified.”.  see also: Miller v. State, 74 Ind. 1

Housh v. People, 75 111. 491

“An arrest made with a defective warrant, or one issued without affidavit, or one that fails to allege a crime is within jurisdiction, and one who is being arrested, may resist arrest and break away. lf the arresting officer is killed by one who is so resisting, the killing will be no more than an involuntary manslaughter.” ; reaffirmed & quoted in State v. Leach, 7 Conn. 452; State v. Gleason, 32 Kan. 245; Ballard v. State, 43 Ohio 349; State v Rousseau, 241 P. 2d 447;  State v. Spaulding, 34 Minn. 3621.

Adams v. State, 121 Ga. 16, 48 S.E. 910

“One may come to the aid of another being unlawfully arrested, just as he may where one is being assaulted, molested, raped or kidnapped. Thus it is not an offense to liberate one from the unlawful custody of an officer, even though he may have submitted to such custody, without resistance.”  

Jones v. State, 26 Tex. App. I

These principles apply as well  to an officer attempting to make an arrest, who abuses his authority & transcends the bounds thereof by the use of unnecessary force and violence, as they do to a private individual who unlawfully uses such force & violence. ; see also Beaverts v. State, 4 Tex. App. 1 75; Skidmore v. State, 43 Tex. 93, 903.

State v. Mobley, 240 N.C. 476, 83 S.E. 2d 100.

Each person has the right to resist an unlawful arrest.  In such a case, the person attempting the arrest stands in the position of a wrongdoer and may be resisted by the use of force, as in self-defense.”

Plummer v. State, 136 Ind. 306.
“Citizens may resist unlawful arrest to the point of taking an arresting officer’s life if necessary.”   This premise was upheld by the Supreme Court of the United States in this case:
“Story affirmed the right of self-defense by persons held illegally. In his own writings, he had admitted that a situation could arise in which the checks-&-balances principle ceased to work & the various branches of government concurred in a gross usurpation.’ There would be no usual remedy by changing the law or passing an amendment to the Constitution, should the oppressed party be a minority. Story concluded, If there be any remedy at all … it is a remedy never provided for by human institutions.’ That was the ultimate right of all human beings in extreme cases to resist oppression, and to apply force against ruinous injustice.'” (From “Mutiny on the Amistad” by Howard Jones, Oxford Univ. Press, 1987, an account of the reading of the decision in the case by Justice Joseph Story of the Supreme Court.

“The carrying of arms in a quiet, peaceable, & orderly manner, concealed on or about the person, is not a breach of the peace. Nor does such an act of itself, lead to a breach of the peace.” Judy v. Lashley, 5 W. Va. 628, 41 S.E. 197

“It is the law that a person illegally arrested by an officer may resist that arrest, even to the extent of the taking of life, if his own life or any great bodily harm is threatenedState v. Rousseau, 40 Wash. 2nd, 92, 241 P. 2nd. 447, 449 (1952)  see also:  Porter v. State, 124 Ga. 297, 52 S.E. 283, 287 (1905); see also State v. Mobley, 240 N.C. 476, 83 S.E. 2nd 100, 102 (1954); Wilkinson v. State, 143 Miss. 324, 108 So. 711, 712-13 (1926); American Jurisprudence, 2nd Ed., “Arrest”, Section 94, pp. 778-780; Thomas v. State, 91 Ga. 204, 18 S.E. 305 (1892); Presley v. State, 75 Fla. 434, 78 So. 532, 534 (1918); Burkhard v. State, 83 Tex. Crim. 228, 202 S.W. 513; Mullins v. State, 196 Ga. 569, 27 S.E. 2nd. 91 (1943); Ownes v. State, 58 Tex. Crim. 261, 125 S.W. 405 (1910); Caperton v. Commonwealth, 189 Ky. 652, 655, 225 S.W. 481, 481 (1920)

“The United States Supreme Court, and every other court in the past deciding upon the matter, has recognized that “at common Law”, a person had the right to “resist the illegal attempt to arrest him.” John Bad Elk v. United States, 177 U.S. 529, 534-35 (1899). State v. Robinson, 145 Me 77, 72 Alt. 2d 260, 262 (1950). State v. Gum, 68 W. Va. 105. State v. Rouseau, 40 Wash. 2d. 92, 241, 242 P.2d 447, 449 (1952). State v. Mobley, 240 N.C. 446, 83 S.E., 2d 100, 102 (1954). Wilkinson v. State, 143 Miss. 324, 108 So. 711. Thomas v. State, 91 Ga. 204, 18 SE 305 Presley v. State, 75 Fla. 434, 78 So. 523. Burkhardt v. State, 83 Tex Crim 228, 202 S.W. 513Mullis v. State, 196 Ga. 569, 27 SE 2d 91 (1943). Owen v. State, 58 Tex Crim 261, 125 S.W. 405 (1910). Franklin,118 Ga. 860, 45 S.E. 698 (1903). Graham v. State, 143 Ga. 440 85 S.E. 328, 331 City of Columbus v. Holmes, 152 N.W. 2d, 301, 306 (Ohio App. 1058). Adams v. State, 121 Ga 163, 48 S.E. 910 (1904). Robertson v. State, 198 S. W2d 633, 635-36 Tenn. (1947). Roberts v. Dean, 187 So. 571, 575 Fla. 1939. The State of Connecticut against Leach, 7 Conn, Rep. 452 (1829) Housh v. The People, 75 ILL Rep. 487, 491 (1874). Plummer v. The State, 135 Ind. 308, 313, 334 N.E. 968 (1893).  People v. Hevern, 127 Misc. Rep. 141, 215 NY Supp 412. U.S. v. Cerciello, 86 NJL 309, 90 Atl.1112, (1914). U.S. v. Kelly, 51 Fed 2d 263 (1931) Bednarik v. Bednarik, 16 A 2d, 80, 90, 18 NJ Misc. 633 (1948). State v. Height, 117 Iowa 650, 91 NW 935. People v. Corder, 244 Mich. 274, 221 NW 309. Boyd v. U.S., 116 U.S. 616. State v. Newcomb, 220 Mo 54 119 SW 405. Town of Blacksburg v. Bean, 104 S.C. 146. 88 S.E. 441 (1916) Allen v. State, 197 N.W. 808, 810-11(Wis 1924). Adarns v. State, 121 Ga 163, 48 S.E. 910 (1904) Green v.Kennedy, 48 N.Y. Rep. 653, 654 (1871). Hicks v. Matthews, 266 S.W. 2nd. 846, 849 (Tex. 1954). Porter v. State, 124 Ga. 297, 52 S.E. 283, 287 (1905). Mullins v. State,196 Ga. 569, 27 S.E. 2nd. 91 (1943). Caperton v. Commonwealth, 189 Ky. 652, 655, 225 S.W. 481, 481 (1920)

Notice how heavy handed they were, once they took his pulse and realized they murdered him, then they touching him with two fingers. And the Foreign european male with the gun that had on the shirt with the makings “99”, once he realized he murdered the brother after pressing his face into the sidewalk with his knee…he is far from the scene after he murders him. 

 

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Check out how the politicians are trying to save their a#@!!!

What’s interesting about the below attached documents is the alleged income tax for INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICES applies only to corporations.

 It does not apply to the compensation of labor of the People

 If they are compelling the People to pay a corporate tax then they are saying the People are nothing moor than corporations, property of the united states therefore they owe the beneficiaries of the INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE trust.

That sounds like TREASON!!!!

 This is why the politicians who have known all about this are now trying to repeal the 16th amendment that Constitutionally is not law and was never ratified however was imposed on the People.

The sugar is about to hit the fan and that is why they are trying to clean up now.

Congress can say whatever they want however it is the People who have the final say so and it just so happens the United States Supreme Court concurs.

“Whatever may constitute income, therefore must have the essential feature of gain to the recipient. This was true when the 16th Amendment became effective, it was true at the time of Eisner vs. Revenue Code of 1938, and it is likewise true under sec. 61(a) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954. If there is no gain there is no income . . . Congress has taxed income, not compensation [wages].” (Connor vs. U.S. 303 F. Supp. 1187)

“Only the rare taxpayer would likely to know that he could refuse to produce his records to IRS agents.” (U.S. vs. Dickerson, 413 f2d 1111, CA7, 1969) the Internal Revenue Code of 1954. If there is no gain there is no income . . . Congress has taxed income, not compensation [wages].” (Connor vs. U.S. 303 F. Supp. 1187)

In a report titled “Some Constitutional Questions regarding Federal Income Tax Law” prepared by Howard Zaritsky, Legislative Attorney, American Law Division, Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress # 84188A 784-275, states, “The Supreme Court, in a decision written by Chief Justice White noted that the 16th Amendment did not authorize any new type of tax, did not repeal or revoke the tax clauses of Article I of the Constitution. Direct taxes are still subject to the rule of apportionment and indirect taxes are still subject to the rule of uniformity.”

In Evans vs. Gore (1920) the court ruled: “The sixteenth does not justify the taxation of persons or things (their property) previously immune . . . it does not extend taxing power to new or excepted citizens . . . it is intended only to remove all occasions from any apportionment of income taxes among the states. It does not authorize a tax on a salary.”

In 1916, the Supreme Court verified the income tax is not a “Direct Tax.” In Brushaber vs. Union Pacific the court declared: “The contention that the Amendment (16th) treats a tax as a direct tax (which must be apportioned) is wholly without foundation . . . The Amendment was drawn with the object of maintaining the limitations of the Constitution.”

“The tax imposed . . . being a direct tax is unconstitutional and void because [it was] not apportioned . . . constituting one entire scheme . . . The Constitution divided federal taxation into two great classes – the class of direct taxes, and that of [indirect taxes] duties, imposts and excises – and the prescribed two rules which qualified the grant of power as to each class.” (Pollock vs. Farmers Loan and Trust, 158 U.S. 601)

“Income means only gain and profits, not wages.” (So Pacific vs. Lowe, 247 U.S. 330; Stratton vs. Howbert, 231 U.S. 309)

“It is to be noted that by the language of the Act it is not salaries, wages or compensation for personal service that are to be include in gross income.” (Lucas vs. Earl, 281 U.S. 111 1930)

“Income excludes wages, salaries and tips.” (Graves vs. People of N.Y., 59 S. Ct. 595)

“Tips are gifts and are therefore not taxable.” Judge Thomas W. Clary (Okl vs. U.S., February 18, 1975)

“There is a clear distinction between profit and wages or compensation for labor. Compensation [wages] for labor cannot be regarded as profit within the meaning of the law.” (Oliver vs. Halstead, 196 Va. 992; 86 S.E. 2d 858)

“. . . There is a clear distinction between ‘profit’ and ‘wages’ or compensation for labor. Compensation for labor cannot be regarded as profit within the meaning of the law. The word ‘profit’ as ordinarily used, means the gain made upon business or investment – a different thing altogether from mere compensation for labor.” (Commercial League Assc. Vs. The People, 90 Ill 166)

“Reasonable compensation [wages] for labor or services rendered is not profit.” (Lauderdale Cemetery Assc. vs. Mathews 345 Pa. 239; 47 A.2d 277, 280)

“Income means only gain and profit, not earnings.” (Staples vs. U.S. 21 F Sup. 737)

“Freedom in the making of Contracts of Personal employment, by which labor and services are exchanged for money or other forms of property is an elementary part of the rights of personal liberty and private property, not to be struck down directly or arbitrarily with . . .” (Prudential vs. Cheek, 259 U.S. 530)

“Chief among contracts is that of personal employment, by which labor and other services are exchanged for money or other forms of property.” (Coppage vs. Kansas, 35Sct243, 1915)

“The right to labor and to its protection from unlawful interference is a constitutional as well as a common law right. Every man has a natural right to the fruits of his own industry.” (48 Am Jur 2d, Section 2)

“The property which every man has in his labor, is the original foundation of all other property, so it is the most sacred and inviolable.” (Butcher’s Union Co. vs. Crescent City Co., 45 Ct 661)

“Every man has a natural right to the fruits of his own labor, as generally admitted; and no other person can rightfully deprive him of those fruits, and appropriate them at his will.” (The Antelope, 23 U.S. 66, 120)

In Murdock vs. Pennsylvania, the Supreme Court ruled: “A State may not impose a charge for the enjoyment of a right granted by the Federal Constitution.”

In Redfield vs. Fisher the Supreme Court held: “The individual, unlike the corporation cannot be taxed for the mere privilege of existing. The corporation is an artificial entity which owes its existence and charter powers to the state; but the individual rights to live and own property are natural rights for the enjoyment of which an excise tax cannot be imposed.”

“The terms `excise’ and `privilege’ tax are synonymous.” (American Airways vs. Wallace, 57 F 2d 877, 800)

“Congress may not, under the taxing power, assert a power not delegated to it by the constitution.” (Regal Drug Co. vs. Wardell, 260 U.S. 386; 67 L ED 318; 43 S. Ct. 152)

“The Secretary of the Treasury cannot by his regulation alter or amend a Revenue Law.” (Morrill vs. Jones 106 U.S. 407)

“The tax is, of course an excise tax, as are all taxes on income . . .” (White Packing Co. vs. Robertson, 89 F 2d 775, 779 the 4th Circuit Court)

“The income tax is, therefore, not a tax on income as such. It is an excise tax . . .” (Congressional Record, March 27, 1943)

In 1930, the Supreme Court reaffirmed the Brushaber and Pollock cases in Tyler vs. U.S.: “A tax laid upon the happening of an event, as distinguished from its tangible fruits (of our labor), is an indirect tax.”

“People [person] cannot be forced to submit records for inspection.” (U.S., and Fred Rosauer, Special Agent IRS vs. Johanna Van Poperin, U.S. District Court, District of Minn., 4th Division, 4-71 Civil 635)

Bill Text – 113th Congress (2013-2014) – THOMAS (Library of Congress)

Congressman Jim Bridenstine Files Bill to Repeal 16th Amendment

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