The truth about the w-4 is suppose to be posted at all work places – Did you know?

Many or some of us have heard that the w-4 withholding is voluntary and even though we have stated this – it has gone unnoticed and unheard mainly because we do not have documented proof or are not aware how this is unconstitutional as we lack knowledge of the American Constitution 1791.

Constitutionally, withholding of anyone’s compensation for the exchange of their energy is in fact unconstitutional as the tax is imposed on the energy of the People, unconstitutional, by a corporation and one that is on record as NOT being an agency of the federal government.

In fact not too long ago there use to be a posting in the employment office and the workers lunch area that displayed not just your rights as it relates to sexual harassment in the workplace, fair wage rate, various types of discrimination, and other issues relative to the rights of the worker.

In addition to the above, did you know there is another posting that aught to be posted that all employers are required to post that advised that the w-4 is voluntary…Have you seen it?

Here is it for your edification. Analyze and pay close attention to this notice especially the last line!!!

Exhibit A - IRS Notice.rtf.pdf

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There is a Diabolical Plan Afoot!!!

Is it interesting that today you see Europeans with Moors more than ever before? It has increased drastically with the Moorish Son.

It is sad to say however that the Moorish Son is the target market. Why because they function so much from ego therefore it is very, very, very easy to trick them, push their buttons, and get them to participate in the fraudulent transfer of Inheritance.

Now the inheritance is not really transferred, that is impossible to do, however it gives the appearance of transfer and of course there are those who live off this fraudulent transfer.

The European Patriotic system promotes, in grave error that the bloodline comes from the father. That it is the blood of the mother and father that creates the child.

This aught to be a no brainer for all Moors yet it seems to escape many, The Moorish Nation is a Matriarchy – it is not a Patriarchal System – All Moors Aught to know this!!!

Yet we have too many Sons who behave as though the Nation came out of them. Ask yourself this question – how did the blood of a Son get to the child that was in the mother when she was born ?

It is written that “A Nation is in her womb!!!

That would be the Moabite Mother and European daughters womb, they both come with a Nation in their womb.

Now in order to know the significance of this you would have to have a bit of history.

The Moabite mother created the Son. He is called the Miracle Child. For this Moorish Son the European daughter was created however it was well known that the condition of the child is determined by the mother, just as it is International law that the Nationality of the child is determined by the mother. Therefore you can ONLY be what your mother was/is.

As the blood line is from the Moabite Mother, when the European daughter realized that any child she has for the Asiatic Son will NEVER be eligible to inherit regardless of whether it is a Son or a Daughter. The European daughter became enraged and this began the war on the Moabite Mother that continues to this day.

Now the European daughter has, by trickery, enlisted the aide of the Moorish Son, because he does not remember true science, to war against the Moabite mother and fraudulently participate in the transfer of the Ancestral Estate of the Moors from the Moorish Nation to the modern European Serfs.

How you might ask is that done?

Since all women come here with a Nation in their womb, the goal is to get the Moorish son to claim the modern european daughters offspring as their own.

Now Science, true science tells us that the only thing the egg needs is a spark of electricity in order to begin the cell division process. If the Moabite Women would get her diet in check and go back to the mindset of our ForeMothers and eat in harmony with nature she could provide that spark herself as she did prior to European occupation.

This is well documented in the test tube baby era that was well publicized until shortly after, this truth was squashed and no longer spoken of.

It must be known, that at a cellular level all modern european daughters are programmed to get with Moorish Sons – this has NOTHING to do with how much they like you – this is a mental conditioning that has been going on for years so that today many modern european women may not even be aware why they are chasing after the Moorish Son. So deep is the conditioning for the modern european daughter as well as the Moorish Sons.

This information is so well hidden that if you tell the Moorish Son this truth they will deny it venomously – that would be the ego working against them – that is the brilliance of the european strategy that they can trick the Moorish Son into claiming the offspring of another species.

This trickery is so deeply imbedded that if you tell the Moorish family, conscious/unconscious, the truth they will say to you, oh your prejudice and just don’t like so called [ white people ], your being mean, or how about this one, well they are helping us too.

That is correct, there are modern Europeans that do help us. Even Prophet Noble Drew Ali said “the Europeans are helping me, why aren’t you”. They are helping…Not trying to infiltrate the family and transfer the inheritance!!!

It is this trickery and others why Prophet Noble Drew Ali left us a strong message, he said it in one word and repeated it three times – he said “Study,. Study, Study”

Why because you must know why things are happening, why you are being targeted, what is the war against the Aboriginal Indigenous People/Moors all about? It has only ever been about birth right theft – If I can get you Moors to change places with the true serfs/black people/colored people/ negro which is the modern european erroneously classified as white people”. If I can infiltrate your pure family and get you Sons to claim a modern european daughters offspring then I can slowly take over your illustrious Nation / bloodline – of course that only happens here since many Moors outside the Continental United States of Al Moroc / Northwest Amexem Moors know who the true and only aboriginal indigenous People/Moors are.

How else do they get the Moors to trade places with them? Most Moors do not know the true meaning of words. Black is pale / without color i.e. colored people, negro referencing the Troglodyte Negro Chimpanzee – these are the names of the modern europeans erroneously called white people – interestingly enough the aboriginal indigenous people /Moors have take on this brand and the modern euroepan erroneously called white people now tell anyone who will listen that they are American – So the black people/modern europeans are American and the aboriginal indigenous people / Moors are black people? Hhhhhhmmmmm …That’s some kind of mental slavery

If you think what I say regarding the trickery of the Moorish Son is false look to the Prophesies and Statement #16 “One day your biggest trouble won’t be getting with European women, it will be fighting them off.” Because they are programmed to go after the Moorish Son and get him to claim their offspring as their own and then transfer the Ancestral Estate to a foreign species/nation – this is infiltration of the Nation.

This is why Prophet Noble Drew Ali said “study, study, study”, so you will have the wisdom to know!!!

Attempts to transfer the Ancestral Estate Example

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Selma – the Fraud and withholding of the Truth

Below is a brief description of the fraudulent movie “Selma”- Isn’t it interesting that the modern european with the assistance of some of our own family is putting out so many movies about the enslavement of the Aboriginal Indigenous People erroneously called the slaves?

It’s even moor interesting when those who are assisting to further the lie do not tell the truth to the Aboriginal Indigenous People of this land.

For example did you know the alleged Civil Rights Act of 1964 was repealed? Oh why you might ask – because there is NO such thing as Civil Rights! The fact that they call it an “Act” aught to tell the People something – it’s a trap. There can only be Human Rights which is NOT a discretionary act/action, it is in fact human trafficking of the Aboriginal Indigenous People.

However it is first and foremost birth right theft!!!

If the modern european can get the Moors Aboriginal Indigenous People branded negro, colored, black, african ameircan to continue to abandon their ancestral estate they will continue to live off the same ancestral estate that is the Moors by lineal descent.

These modern europeans have the Moors declaring themselves to be the serfs/slavics/slaves that came over on the Mayflower and other ships as well as through Ellis Island to this land in which the Aboriginal Indigenous People permitted them to come initially and work under the companies of Great Britain. They declared their Independence in 1776 via the Declaration of Independence in order to come under the protection of the Moorish Empire and come out from under the brutal treatment of Great Britain.

This is documented in the “Letter to the People of Great Britain” as well as the “Declaration of Independence”.

So all People with melinated skin and their mother is melinated aboriginal indigenous, branded negro, colored, black African America are not and never were the original serfs/slavics/slaves.

The word Black, Colored, Negro, African American denote the original hybrid – Black in truth means pale and at law means “Dead in the eyes of the law” i.e. ineligible to inherit, Colored denotes no tie to the Ancestral Estate and the family, Negro refers to the Troglodyte Negro Chimpanzee, and African American references two continents. So how can any divine being be any of these?

By claiming these brands the People without knowledge abandon their Ancestral Estate.

This movie Selma not only supports this but it also continues to mis-inform the People. The boycott was in full swing for about a year when Martin Luther King showed up. He didn’t come to help, he was sent by modern europeans to end the boycott before the People realized just how much power they have economically.

Imagine how much income these corporations lost when the People stopped taking the bus….Hhhhhmmmm

The flow of income had to be restored and since most women are caught up in the corporation called “church” they were successfully diverted by the pretty looking, slick talking Martin – that’s called strategy and it still happens to this day.

In addition to the above, the use of reverse psychology was utilized – the People, in their limited information state, were told they could not mix and mingle with Europeans erroneously called white people.

By keeping the Aboriginal Indigenous People away and alleging that they had to have separate fountains, couldn’t vote, couldn’t eat in certain places, and couldn’t go to the same schools, this produced a desire to have what was alleged to be “better”.

Let’s take a look at this:

On the law books to this day is a law, do not have sex with animals. Who do you think the animals are?

When we had this information, there would be no way the Aboriginal Indigenous People would ever drink from or eat at the same place animals eat at. So this separation was not for the Aboriginal Indigenous People – it was for the modern Europeans/serfs erroneously called “white people”.

Allegation: We Moors couldn’t vote

We cannot vote per the American Constitution 1791 for those qualified modern Europeans who were running for positions under the United States of America which we, Aboriginal Indigenous People, ordained and established for those indentured servants – See Article I American Constitution 1791.

However we are to vote for Moors who sit in the Seats of the United States as well as Congress and the United States Supreme Court – See American Constitution 1791.

Today we have left our seats under the United States and the Union States under the United States of America speaks for the United States of course without authority.

Allegation: We never went to our Institutions of Learning with modern Europeans

We Aboriginal Indigenous People had our own system of passing information on and it is not what is going on today. That is mental conditioning.

However the modern european had to get into our system of education in order to alter it and begin to remove the truth from our curriculum – unfortunately there have been traitorous Moors who assisted in this and continue to assist to this day.

My position regarding this movie “Selma” is this: It is trash because it does not tell the truth. Do NOT support this, do NOT give it any energy, do NOT acknowledge it.

The position this and many of these types of movies take is to keep the Aboriginal Indigenous People asleep with the continued misinformation. These things were never initially done to the Aboriginal Indigenous People – they were done to the modern Europeans who came over from Great Britain to work in the companies established by the Kings of Great Britain. The mistreatment they received unfortunately was at the hands of our cousins the Brutish Moors however it is the Moors here at Maghrib ‘al ‘Aqca that acknowledged these modern Europeans in order for them to be recognized as a “nation” and this was affirmed by Hillary Rodman Clinton at the White House in the Benjamin Franklin Room 2012.

Wake up you sleepy headed Moors…

Selma fraud

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What are you celebrating on December 31 / January 1?

The fraudulent celebration of the alleged New Year is NOT the new year. It is in fact the end of the corporations fiscal year – be sure you know what you are partaking in.

The New Year can only be when all new things begin – New is the key – Is there anything new coming our of Mother Earth at this time? NO

However in the King Alfred Plan is it said “We will create an artificial womb for them…” The artificial womb is the corporation which produces nothing relative to Mother Nature therefore this is a barren New Year which cannot be based on Universal Law and Natural Law.

The New Year is March 21st – the Spring Equinox and it marks the first day of Spring when all new things begin and has historically been celebrated as a time of rebirth in the Northern Hemisphere – The North Gate.

What is being birthed at this cold time of the year in the Northern Hemisphere that is alleged to be the New Year by corporations?

Well if you change birth to berth you will know – it is not anything natural.

Islam!!!

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Are you in a “court”?

Or are you in a room rented by a corporation in a building called a court?

Pursuant to the American Constitution 1791 Article III Section I –

“The judicial power of the United States, shall be vested in one Supreme Court, and in such inferior courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish.”

Now there are some who believe and subscribe to the establishment of many courts per the Judiciary Act of 1789. However upon analysis you will find that the Judiciary Act of 1789 was enacted by Abraham Lincoln, President.

Two points: #1 The American Constitution was ratified and went into force 1791 which means the 1789 “Act” is null and void as the American Constitution 1791 takes precedence and ALL Union State are bound to following the Supreme Law of the Land, the American Constitution 1791.

#2 As the American Constitution 1791 is the Supreme Law of the Land, there are no provisions for the “President” to have any Judicial Authority or Congressional Authority to establish courts.

Now one of the points of contention that many of the People occasionally have is when they request the Delegation of Authority from these Corporate Administrative agents of the corporation who have rented a room in a building called a court they are told, there is no such thing.

Note The 10th Bill of Right of the American Constitution – where is states “The powers not delegated to the united States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the People.

You must know that state/People are synonymous – and is in harmony with the entire purpose of the American Constitution 1791 which is to protect the People from infringement of their Liberties by all corporations.

The 10th Bill of Right lets all know that ALL powers are delegated – ALL.

So I ask you once again, Are you in a “court”? Ask in written form prior to arrival for their Delegation of Authority pursuant to Article III Section II and 10th Bill of Rights of the American Constitution 1791 and research how, when, and by who these alleged courts were established – you will moor than likely find that they were established by the General Assembly – and there is NO provision in the Supreme Law of this land for a General Assembly. That is an Administrative body established by the Kings of Great Britain.

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Wake up you Sleepy Headed Moors…The Gig is up!!!


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NT5ZAzVbFFM

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Moorish [ Mooris ] Dance – Really!!! You don’t know who the Moors are.

Really!!! You don’t know who the Moors are…

Check out the below take from Wikipedipa with reference to the Morris Dance.

You do know that Mooris is a derivative of Moor as well as Moray, Mora, Morisco, Morisques, Moreska, Maurice, Mourice, Maura, Mary, etc.

This article is specific to the dance however within it is history regarding the customs and culture of the Moors – check out the picture of the modern europeans trying to claim a history that is NOT theirs.

Also, it is interesting to note that is this article they say “Almost nothing is known about the folk dances of England prior to the mid-17th century.”

The reason you would not have any information on any dances of England is this is a modern word referencing the English who as defined in the Oxford Dictionary is a hybrid.

References to Mooris Dance


Morris dance

Morris dance is a form of English folk dance usually accompanied by music. It is based on rhythmic stepping and the execution of choreographed figures by a group of dancers, usually wearing bell pads on their shins. Implements such as sticks, swords and handkerchiefs may also be wielded by the dancers. In a small number of dances for one or two men, steps are performed near and across a pair of clay tobacco pipes laid one across the other on the floor.

The earliest known and surviving English written mention of Morris dance is dated to 1448, and records the payment of seven shillings to Morris dancers by the Goldsmiths’ Company in London.[1] Further mentions of morris dancing occur in the late 15th century, and there are also early records such as visiting bishops’ “Visitation Articles” mention sword dancing, guising and other dancing activities, as well as mumming plays. While the earliest records invariably mention “Morys” in a court setting, and a little later in the Lord Mayors’ Processions in London, it had adopted the nature of a folk dance performed in the parishes by the mid 17th century.

Outside of England, there are around 150 morris sides (or teams) in the United States. [2] British expatriates form a larger part of the morris tradition in Australia, Canada, New Zealand[3] and Hong Kong. There are isolated groups in other countries[4]

Name and origins

Further information: Moresca

A small statue of a “Moriskentänzer” made by Erasmus Grasser in 1480 for Old Townhall in Munich, one of a set of 16, of which only 10 remain. This dancer is clearly “moorish“, but all the other 9 surviving carvings have caucasian features. All wear bells on their legs.

The name is first recorded in the mid-15th century as Morisk dance, moreys daunce, morisse daunce, i.e. “Moorish dance”. The term entered English via Flemish mooriske danse Comparable terms in other languages are German Moriskentanz (also from the 15th century), French morisques, Croatian moreška, and moresco, moresca or morisca in Italy and Spain. The modern spelling Morris-dance first appears in the 17th century.[5]

It is unclear why the dance was so named, “unless in reference to fantastic dancing or costumes”, i.e. the deliberately “exotic” flavour of the performance.[6] The English dance thus apparently arose as part of a wider 15th-century European fashion for supposedly “Moorish” spectacle, which also left traces in Spanish and Italian folk dance. The means and chronology of the transmission of this fashion is now difficult to trace; the Great London Chronicle records “spangled Spanish dancers” performing an energetic dance before Henry VII at Christmas of 1494, but Heron’s accounts also mention “pleying of the mourice dance” four days earlier, and the attestation of the English term from the mid-15th century establishes that there was a “Moorish dance” performed in England decades prior to 1494.

It is suggested that the tradition of rural English dancers blackening their faces may be a reference to north African (or Moorish) pirates who settled in England.

History in Great Britain [ England ]

While the earliest (15th-century) references place the Morris dance in a courtly setting, it appears that the dance became part of performances for the lower classes by the later 16th century; in 1600, the Shakespearean actor William Kempe morris danced from London to Norwich, an event chronicled in his Nine Daies Wonder (1600).

Almost nothing is known about the folk dances of England prior to the mid-17th century. While it is possible to speculate on the transition of “morris dancing” from the courtly to a rural setting, it may have acquired elements of pre-Elizabethan (medieval) folk dance, such proposals will always be based on an argument from silence as there is no direct record of what such elements would have looked like. In the Elizabethan period, there was significant cultural contact between Italy and England, and it has been suggested that much of what is now considered traditional English folk dance, and especially English country dance, is descended from Italian dances imported in the 16th century.[12]

By the mid 17th century, the working peasantry took part in morris dances, especially at Whitsun.The Puritan government of Oliver Cromwell, however, suppressed Whitsun Ales and other such festivities. When the crown was restored by Charles II, the springtime festivals were restored. In particular, Whitsun Ales came to be celebrated on Whitsunday (Pentecost), as the date coincided with the birthday of Charles II.

Morris dancing continued in popularity until the industrial revolution and its accompanying social changes. Four teams claim a continuous lineage[clarification needed] of tradition within their village or town: Abingdon (their morris team was kept going by the Hemmings family), Bampton, Headington Quarry, and Chipping Campden. Other villages have revived their own traditions, and hundreds of other teams across the globe have adopted (and adapted) these traditions, or have created their own styles from the basic building blocks of morris stepping and figures.

Several English folklorists were responsible for recording and reviving the tradition in the early 20th century, often from a bare handful of surviving members of mid-19th-century village sides. Among these, the most notable are Cecil Sharp, Maud Karpeles, and Mary Neal.

Boxing Day 1899 is widely regarded as the starting point for the morris revival. Cecil Sharp was visiting at a friend’s house in Headington, near Oxford, when the Headington Quarry morris side arrived to perform. Sharp was intrigued by the music and collected several tunes from the side’s musician, William Kimber; not until about a decade later, however, did he begin collecting the dances, spurred and at first assisted by Mary Neal, a founder of the Espérance Club (a dressmaking co-operative and club for young working women in London), and Herbert MacIlwaine, musical director of the Espérance Club. Neal was looking for dances for her girls to perform, and so the first revival performance was by young women in London.

In the first few decades of the 20th century, several men’s sides were formed, and in 1934 the Morris Ring was founded by six revival sides. In the 1950s and especially the 1960s, there was an explosion of new dance teams, some of them women’s or mixed sides. At the time, there was often heated debate over the propriety and even legitimacy of women dancing the morris, even though there is evidence as far back as the 16th century that there were female morris dancers. There are now male, female and mixed sides to be found.

Partly because women’s and mixed sides are not eligible for full membership of the Morris Ring, two other national (and international) bodies were formed, the Morris Federation and Open Morris. All three bodies provide communication, advice, insurance, instructionals (teaching sessions) and social and dancing opportunities to their members. The three bodies co-operate on some issues, while maintaining their distinct identities.

Styles

Today, there are six predominant styles of morris dancing, and different dances or traditions within each style named after their region of origin.

  • Cotswold morris: dances from an area mostly in Gloucestershire and Oxfordshire; an established misnomer, since the Cotswolds overlap this region only partially. Normally danced with handkerchiefs or sticks to accompany the hand movements. Dances are usually for 6 or 8 dancers, but solo and duo dances (known as single or double jigs) also occur.
  • North West morris: more military in style and often processional, that developed out of the mills in the North-West of England in the 19th and early 20th centuries.
  • Border Morris from the English-Welsh border: a simpler, looser, more vigorous style, traditionally danced with blackened faces.
  • Longsword dancing from Yorkshire and south Durham, danced with long, rigid metal or wooden swords for, usually, 6 or 8 dancers.
  • Rapper from Northumberland and Co. Durham, danced with short flexible sprung steel swords, usually for 5 dancers.
  • Molly Dancing from Cambridgeshire. Traditionally danced on Plough Monday, they were Feast dances that were danced to collect money during harsh winters. One of the dancers would be dressed as a woman, hence the name. Joseph Needham identified two separate families of Molly dances, one from three villages in the Cambridge area and one from two in the Ely area.
  • Ploughstots (alternatively Vessel Cupping and Plew-ladding) from the East and North ridings of Yorkshire, also danced on Plough Monday. The dancers often held “flags”, used similarly to handkerchiefs in Cotswold and Border dances to emphasise hand movements, or rattling bones, rather than wearing bells but for the same purpose.
  • A similar Plough Monday tradition exists in the East Midlands; some of these dances involve swords, usually danced over in a similar manner to baccapipes jigs from Oxfordshire.

Cotswold

Lionel Bacon records Cotswold morris traditions from these villages: Abingdon, Adderbury, Ascot-under-Wychwood, Badby, Bampton, Bidford, Bledington, Brackley, Bucknell, Chipping Campden, Ducklington, Eynsham, Headington Quarry, Hinton-in-the-Hedges, Ilmington, Kirtlington, Leafield, Longborough, Oddington, Sherbourne, Stanton Harcourt, and Wheatley.

Bacon also lists the tradition from Lichfield, which is Cotswold-like despite that city’s distance from the Cotswold morris area; the authenticity of this tradition has been questioned. In 2006, a small number of dances from a previously unknown tradition was discovered by Barry Care of Moulton Morris Men (Ravensthorpe, Northants)—two of them danceable.

Other dances listed by Bacon include Border morris dances from Brimfield, Bromsberrow Heath, Evesham, Leominster, Much Wenlock, Pershore, Upton-upon-Severn, Upton Snodsbury, White Ladies Aston, and miscellaneous non-Cotswold, non-Border dances from Steeple Claydon and Winster. There are a number of traditions which have been collected since the mid-twentieth century, though few have been widely adopted. Examples are Broadwood, Duns Tew, and Ousington-under-Wash in the Cotswold style, and Upper and Lower Penn in the Border style. In fact, for many of the “collected” traditions in Bacon, only sketchy information is available about the way they were danced in the nineteenth century, and they have been reconstructed to a degree that makes them largely twentieth century inventions as well. Some traditions have been reconstructed in several strikingly disparate ways; an example would be Adderbury, danced very differently by the Adderbury Morris Men and the Adderbury Village Morris.

North West

The North West tradition is named after the North West region of England and has always featured mixed and female sides – at least as far back as the 18th century. There is a picture of Eccles Wakes (painted in the 1820s, judging by the style of dress of some of the participants and spectators) that shows both male and female dancers.

Historically, most sides danced in various styles of shoes or boots, although dancing in clogs was also very common. Modern revivalist sides have tended more towards the wearing of clogs. The dances were often associated with rushcarts at the local wakes or holidays. The dances themselves were often called ‘maze’ or ‘garland dances’ as they involved a very intricate set of movements in which the dancers wove in and out of each other. Some dances were performed with a wicker hoop (decorated with garlands of flowers) held above the dancer’s head. Some dancers were also associated with a tradition of mumming and hold a pace egging play in their area.

The Britannia Coco-nut Dancers, named after a mill not far from Bacup, are unique in the tradition, in that they used sawn bobbins to make a noise, and perform to the accompaniment of a brass ensemble. They are one of the few North West morris groups that still black up their faces. It is said that the dance found its way to the area through Cornishmen who migrated to work in the Rossendale quarries.

Towards the end of the 19th century, the Lancashire tradition was taken up by sides associated with mills and nonconformist chapels, usually composed of young girls. These lasted until the First World War, after which many mutated into “jazz dancers”. (A Bolton troupe can be seen in a pre-war documentary by Humphrey Jennings.) The dances have evolved stylistically and the dancers’ dress has changed to include pompoms and elements from other groups, such as cheerleaders and Irish dancers. However, they refer to themselves as “morris dancers”, wear bells, and are still mainly based in the Northwest of England. This type of morris has been around since the 1940s and is also referred to as Carnival or “fluffy morris” dancing. They take part in many different competitions during the year and end it with a “Championship” where one dance troupe is crowned the champions. This type of morris is also found in the north of Wales, where there are many different organizations with many different troupes. In 2008 NEMDCO (North of England Morris Dancing Carnival Organization) held a large competition at Blackpool in the Blackpool Tower Ballroom. The winner of this competition was Valencia, a troupe from Liverpool. During the folk revival in the 1960s, many of the old steps to dances such as “Stubbins Lane Garland” were often passed on by old people

Border

Main article: Border Morris

Morris dancers with black-painted faces, traditional along the border with Wales

Morris dancing with black painted faces in Monmouth, south Wales, as part of the Olympic torch relay, 2012

The term “Border Morris” was first used by E. C. Cawte in a 1963 article[20] on the morris dance traditions of Herefordshire, Shropshire, and Worcestershire – counties along the border with Wales. Characteristics of the tradition as practised in the 19th and early 20th centuries include black painted faces (in some areas); use of either a small strip of bells (in some areas) or no bells at all (in others); costume often consisting of ordinary clothes decorated with ribbons, strips of cloth, or pieces of coloured paper; or sometimes “fancy dress”; small numbers of dances in the team repertoire, often only one and rarely more than two; highly variable number of dancers in the set and configurations of the set (some sides had different versions of a dance for different numbers of dancers); and an emphasis on stick dances almost to the exclusion of hankie dances.

Sword dancing

Plough Monday dance by the Royal Liberty Morris

Usually regarded as a type of morris, although many of the performers themselves consider it as a traditional dance form in its own right, is the sword dance tradition, which includes both rapper sword and longsword traditions. In both styles the “swords” are not actual swords, but implements specifically made for the dance. The dancers are usually linked one to another via the swords, with one end of each held by one dancer and the other end by another. Rapper sides consist of five dancers, who are permanently linked-up during the dance. The rapper sword is a very flexible strip of spring-steel with a wooden handle at each end. The longsword is about 2’6″ (0.8 metres) long, with a wooden handle at one end, a blunt tip, and no edge. Sometimes ribbons are threaded through a hole in the tip oif the sword, and the dancers grab on to them during the course of the dance. Longsword sides consist usually of five to eight dancers. In both rapper and longsword there is often a supernumerary “character”, who dances around, outside, and inside the set.

Mumming

The English mummers play occasionally involves morris or sword dances either incorporated as part of the play or performed at the same event. Mummers plays are often performed in the streets near Christmas to celebrate the New Year and the coming springtime. In these plays are central themes of death and rebirth.

Other traditions

Other forms include Molly dance from Cambridgeshire. Molly dance, which is associated with Plough Monday, is a parodic form danced in work boots and with at least one Molly man dressed as a woman. The largest Molly Dance event is the Whittlesea Straw Bear Festival, established in 1980, held at Whittlesey in Cambridgeshire in January.

There is also hoodening which comes from East Kent, and the Abbots Bromley Horn Dance.

Another expression of the morris tradition is Vessel Cupping. This was practised in the East Riding of Yorkshire until the 1920s. It was a form danced by itinerant ploughboys in sets of three or four, about the time of Candlemas.

Additionally, there is a specifically Welsh version of this terpsichorean art that is distinct from the Borders Morris style. This style is called Nantgarw tradition after a small village in the Taff Valley. One Nantgarw dance, Y Caseg Eira, is derived directly from notes made on traditional Welsh dances from the 1890s. These notes were made by Dr. Ceinwen Thomas in the 1950s from the childhood recollections of her mother, Catherine Margretta Thomas. Others are more modern inventions made in the style of older dances. Dances in the Nantgarw style include; Caseg Eira (The Snow Mare), Hela’r Sgwarnog (Hunting The Hare) and Ty Coch Caerdydd (The Red House of Cardiff).

Music

Music was traditionally provided by either a pipe and tabor or a fiddle. These are still used today, but the most common instrument is the melodeon. Accordions and concertinas are also common, and other instruments are sometimes used. Often drums are employed.

Cotswold and sword dancers are most often accompanied by a single player, but Northwest and Border sides often have a band, usually including a drum.

For Cotswold and (to a degree) Border dances, the tunes are traditional and specific: the name of the dance is often actually the name of the tune, and dances of the same name from different traditions will have slightly different tunes. For Northwest and sword dancing there is less often a specific tune for a dance: the players may use several tunes, and will often change tunes during a dance.

For dances which have set tunes, there is often a short song set to the tune. This is sung by the musician(s) or by the whole side as an introduction to the tune before the dance. The songs are usually rural in focus (i.e. related to agricultural practices or village life) and often bawdy or vulgar. Songs for some dances vary from side to side, and some sides omit songs altogether.

Several notable albums have been released, in particular the Morris On series, which consists of Morris On, Son of Morris On, Grandson of Morris On, Great Grandson of Morris On, Morris On the Road, and Mother of all Morris.

Terminology

Like many activities, morris dancing has a range of words and phrases that it uses in special ways.

Many participants will refer to the world of morris dancing as a whole as the morris.

A morris troupe is usually referred to as a side or a team. The two terms are interchangeable. Despite the terminology, morris dancing is hardly ever competitive.

A set (which can also be referred to as a side) is a number of dancers in a particular arrangement for a dance. Most Cotswold morris dances are danced in a rectangular set of six dancers, and most Northwest dances in a rectangular set of eight; but there are many exceptions.

A jig is a dance performed by one (or sometimes two) dancers, rather than by a set. Its music does not usually have the rhythm implied by the word jig in other contexts.

The titles of officers will vary from side to side, but most sides have at least the following:

  • The role of the squire varies. In some sides the squire is the leader, who will speak for the side in public, usually lead or call the dances, and often decide the programme for a performance. In other sides the squire is more of an administrator, with the foreman taking the lead, and the dances called by any experienced dancer.
  • The foreman teaches and trains the dancers, and is responsible for the style and standard of the side’s dancing. The foreman is often “active” with the “passive” dancers.
  • The bagman is traditionally the keeper of the bag—that is to say, the side’s funds and equipment. In some sides today the bagman acts as secretary (particularly bookings secretary) and there is often a separate treasurer.
  • On some sides a ragman manages and co-ordinates the team’s kit or costume. This may include making bell-pads, ribbon bads, sashes and other accoutrements.

Many sides have one or more fools. A fool will usually be extravagantly dressed, and communicate directly with the audience in speech or mime. The fool will often dance around and even through a dance without appearing really to be a part of it, but it takes a talented dancer to pull off such fooling while actually adding to and not distracting from the main dance set.

Pete the Royal Liberty Morris fool

Many sides also have a beast: a dancer in a costume made to look like a real or mythical animal. Beasts mainly interact with the audience, particularly children. In some groups this dancer is called the hobby.

A tradition in Cotswold morris is a collection of dances that come from a particular area, and have something in common: usually the steps, arm movements, and dance figures. Many newer traditions are invented by revival teams.

Most Cotswold dances alternate common figures (or just figures) with a distinctive figure (or chorus). The common figures are common to all (or some) dances in the tradition; the distinctive figure distinguishes that dance from others in the same tradition. Sometimes (particularly in corner dances) the choruses are not identical, but have their own sequence specific to the tradition. Nevertheless, something about the way the chorus is danced will distinguish that dance from others. Several traditions will often have essentially the same dance, where the name, tune, and distinctive figure are the same or similar, but each tradition employs its common figures and style.

In England, an ale is a private party where a number of morris sides get together and perform dances for their own enjoyment rather than for an audience. Food is usually supplied, and sometimes this is a formal meal known as a feast or ale-feast. Occasionally an evening ale will be combined with a day or weekend of dance, where all the invited sides will tour the area and perform in public. In North America the term is widely used to describe a full weekend of dancing involving public performances and sometimes workshops. In the sixteenth to nineteenth centuries, the term “ale” referred to a church- or village-sponsored event where ale or beer was sold to raise funds. Morris dancers were often employed at such events.

Modern dance

The “soul” of morris dancing exists within many individual groups, which are for the most part constituted as autonomous clubs or sides, each with its own constitution and procedures. Sides do not exist in isolation, and generally co-exist in a spirit of good-will and meet regularly, not just at large Folk Festivals or meetings organised by the three national umbrella organisations (Ring, Federation and Open), but also at annual Feasts or Ales that many sides organise. Apart from copious amounts of drinking and eating, these events (which can run over a whole weekend) are an opportunity for large numbers of morris dancers and musicians from across the country to come together in massed ensembles, performing throughout the area covered by the host side.

In theory, sides may acknowledge geographic rights of others, although, except in very unusual cases, there is actually nothing to stop one side performing in the heartland of another. In the past this may have rarely been done without permission and agreement, but in modern practice such courtesies are mainly taken for granted. In most cases, sides partner each other via a system of mutual invitations at Morris Dancing venues.

Morris dancing is now an art and recreation enjoyed by men and women across the world. In England, there are many Mixed Morris sides that enable people to dance and have roles irrespective of gender.

Evolution

The continuance of the morris is as much in the hands of independent groups of enthusiasts as it is in the nationwide groupings such as The Morris Ring or The Morris Federation. So while for some sides there is a feeling that the music and dance recorded in the 19th century should be maintained, there are others who freely reinterpret the music and dance to suit their abilities and including modern influences. In 2008 a front page article in the Independent Magazine noted the rising influence of neopaganism within the modern morris tradition. The article featured the views of Neopagan sides Wolf’s Head and Vixen Morris and Hunter’s Moon Morris and contrasted them with those of the more traditional Long Man Morris Men.

Conversely, the Telegraph carried a report on 5 January 2009, predicting the demise of morris dancing within 20 years, due to the lack of young people willing to take part. This widespread story originated from a senior member of the more traditionally-minded Morris Ring, and may only reflect the situation in relation to member groups of that one organization.

The success of Terry Pratchett‘s Discworld novels has seen the entirely invented Dark Morris tradition being brought to life in some form by genuine morris sides such as the Witchmen Morris and Jack Frost Morris.

The advent of the Internet in the 1990s has also given Morris sides a new platform upon which to perform. Many Morris sides now have entertaining websites which seek to reflect the public persona of the individual sides as much as record their exploits and list forthcoming performances.

There are also a multitude of thriving Morris related blogs, forums and individual sides are to be found maintaining an interactive presence on major social networking sites.

Kit and clothing

There is great variety shown in how morris sides dress, from the predominantly white clothing of Cotswold sides to the tattered jackets worn by Border teams. Some common items of clothing are: bellpads; baldrics; rosettes; waistcoats; tatter-coats; knee-length breeches; wooden clogs; straw hats, top hats, or bowlers; neckerchiefs; armbands.

Namesakes

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